Naples (Napule in Naples) is a common capital of the province and the region of Campania. It is the largest city in southern Italy and is situated between Vesuvius and the volcanic area of Campi Flegrei. Its historic center - known around the world and a destination for tourists from all over the place - is one of the sites which the UNESCO declared World Heritage Site. Today Naples - a city Maliosa, in the words of Vittorio De Sica in 1954 film "The Bay of Naples" - is at the center of a vast metropolitan area that includes within it the whole province of Naples and large parts of neighboring provinces of Salerno, Caserta and Avellino.
HISTORY OF NAPLES
The city was probably founded the inhabitants of the Greek colony Cuma, around the eighth century BC, the site of the old town of Partenope on the current Monte Echia and for this reason was called Nea-polis, 'new town'. In 476 Romulus Augustulus, the last of the Roman emperors, was deposed and imprisoned at Castel dell 'Ovo, at that time fortified Roman villa. Many Roman emperors before him - Claudius, Tiberius, Nero - Naples spent their breaks from the government of the elegant villas in the remains of which now remain. In the sixth century, was stolen from the Goths, the Byzantine Empire during the attempt of Justinian I to recreate the empire. It later became independent duchy under the jurisdiction of Byzantium only nominal, and thanks to the foresight of its leaders and its bishops (see Duchy of Naples) resisted attempts at conquest by the Lombards, the Franks and Saracens, and was one of the last territories to fall into the hands of the Normans in 1137, and disappeared when the Duchy was founded the Kingdom of Sicily, with its capital Palermo. The city was then the Swabians under Frederick II, who in 1224 founded the University there, the second of the peninsula, and the first state.In 1266 Pope Clement IV gave the Kingdom of Naples and Sicily to Charles of Anjou, who moved the capital from Palermo to Naples. In 1284, following the revolt of the Sicilian Vespers, the kingdom was divided into two parts, both of which claimed the title of the Kingdom of Sicily. The two parties were formally separated until 1816 (see Kingdom of Naples), when formed with the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. The Kingdom of Naples was conquered by the Aragonese in 1442 and, later, by the Spaniards in 1501, who kept it until 1707. In the period of Spanish rule quarteras were born, now better known as the Spanish Quarter (in the vernacular 'and districts), and began to consolidate the role of the Camorra. During the War of Spanish Succession, Austria conquered Naples, and held it until 1734, when Charles III of Bourbon - after the War of Polish Succession - the kingdom became independent. Under Charles III of Naples became a major European capital, and the work of Charles (who left Naples in 1759 to assume the crown of Spain) was continued by his son Ferdinand IV, until he was overthrown by revolutionary currents and French troops in 1799 . The Neapolitan Republic founded in 1799 on the French model was short-lived but intense, though not meeting the ever popular favor as its intellectual leaders are far from understanding the real needs of the people. The Republic also, although not recognized by France, was in fact subjected to a "dictatorship of war" that the French very limited autonomy and forced to bear the huge costs caused primarily by the demands of the French army constantly on weapons its territory. Added to this was a very strong repression against opponents of the new regime which certainly did not help to win the sympathies popular (some sources speak of more than 1500 people sentenced to death and shot after summary "political process" throughout the Kingdom).The Republic, however, was swept away after a few months by the armies of so-called "Lazzaroni" (commoners Neapolitan pro-Bourbon) commanded by Cardinal Fabrizio Ruffo secular, supported by the British navy. The reconquest of Naples by Ferdinand, however, was marked by repression of the leaders of the Neapolitan Republic, followed by about a hundred executions. After a few years, however, in 1806, Naples was conquered again by the French (although the Anglo-Neapolitan victory of Maida, in Calabria). The war continued until 1808 when all the continental part of the kingdom was conquered and placed under the control of Joseph Bonaparte, Napoleon's brother. In 1811 the King Joachim Murat, Napoleon, the great urban planner, did you set up the School of application for the corps of engineers of bridges and roads, established as a Polytechnic School in the early twentieth century, and then be aggregated to the current University Federico II, becoming, In 1935, the first faculty of Engineering in Italy. Murat survived just to Napoleon and was ousted by the Bourbons, he attempted a landing in Calabria, the reconquest of the kingdom, finishing shot. Back in the hands of Ferdinand and the Bourbons, in 1860 the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, hitherto independent, was conquered by Giuseppe Garibaldi and then by the troops of the Kingdom of Sardinia and annexed to the Kingdom of Italy, despite a war of resistance lasted about a decade and called banditry.The present town consists of the historic city (corresponding to areas of constituency Advocate, Chiaia, Market, Montecalvario, hanger, Porto, Posillipo, Arena St. Charles, St. Joseph, San Lorenzo, Stella, Vicaria), some fractions melted with the city at various stages for the will of Joachim Murat (Arenella, Bagnoli, Miano, Piscinola, Ward Flegreo or Fuorigrotta, Vomero) and common aggregates during the fascist regime (currently divided into the districts of Barra, Chiaiano, Marianella, Plain, Soccavo Jumpers, San Giovanni in Teduccio, San Pietro a Patierno, Secondigliano, Scampia). The most populous districts are those corresponding to the municipalities aggregated under fascism. The overpopulation of these areas, which are the only two-thirds of the population of the city, is mainly due to political choice - later revealed as bankruptcy - to identify areas in those places in which to achieve the agglomerates under Law 167/1962 (public housing ) and Law No. 219/1981 (public housing for the earthquake victims of 1980). This sudden 'peripheralization' of these areas, which were prepared without adequate infrastructure functional public housing that was developing, he brought the average period of undoubted social problems that have resulted in the formation of large groups microdelinquenziali. In recent years the City is working, thanks to provisions of Law 328/2000, groped to restore the balance in these areas, remained deeply marked by the loss of their identity. The name and boundaries of districts was defined by resolution of the council taking into account such general criteria, descriptions of historical and administrative boundaries of the former self-governing municipalities. The districts are grouped into 21 zones (Chiaia - San Fernando - Posillipo, San Lorenzo - Vicaria, Market - Pendino Advocate - Montecalvario - St. Joseph - Porto, Stella - San Carlo Arena, Bagnoli, Soccavo, Plain, Vomero and Arenella , Marianella - Piscinola, Miano, Chiaiano Secondigliano, San Pietro a Patierno, Poggioreale, Jumpers, Cross, St. John in Teduccio, Scampia Fuorigrotta, which corresponds to the territory of the district Flegreo District), with mostly advisory powers. Each constituency has one or more sections municipal, whose services are coordinated by the demographic constituency registrar services, each of which holds an office of civil status (with separate registers for each district).In Naples, are often preferred by tourists nearby attractions such as Pompeii, the Reggia di Caserta, Capri, the Amalfi Coast, the city is nevertheless a rich cultural heritage without equal in recent years has been strongly re-evaluated thanks to annual events such as May of Monuments.Naples is best known for its castles: the Castel dell 'Ovo, which is part of the famous panorama of the Gulf and the Male or Angionio New Castle overlooking Piazza Municipio, Castel Sant' Elmo overlooking the city from San Martino . The Castel Ovo is so called because, according to legend Virgil hid an egg in the dungeons that held the whole structure of the building, and that when he would have been broken down the castle and brought disaster to the city. It is located on the island of Megaride, where in the seventh century BC that landed the Cumans founded Parthenope. There they built villa of the Roman Lucius Licinius Lucullus, fortified by Valentinian III, and which hosted the deposed last emperor Romulus Augostolo, died there shortly afterwards. After various vicissitudes, in the twelfth century it was rebuilt by the Normans and later rebuilt by the Aragonese. There currently are held exhibitions and conferences, and admission is free. The remarkable strength and majesty of the terrace of the guns. Very quaint fishing village that is developed on the base of the building. The Angevin was built between 1279 and 1282 by Charles I of Anjou and used as a royal palace in his dynasty. Under Robert of Anjou sojourned among others Petrarch and Boccaccio. After the Aragonese conquest, the castle was strengthened and assumed the present structure closer to that of fortitude. Imposing the five towers that define the trachytic tuff and thick walls. The ditch dried up long fueled the legend of the crocodile, alligator snapping a fact that the prisoners in secret dungeon. The triumphal arch of marble at the entrance of the castle was built in 400 by the Aragonese. The monumental Hall of the Barons, which today houses the City Council meetings, was the central hall of the castle. It was so named because in 1487 you were arrested barons who conspired against Ferrante I of Aragon, he just gathered there to celebrate the wedding of his niece. Today the building houses the Museo Civico. The Saint Elmo Castle was built on the hilltop of the Vomero around 1275 by Charles I of Anjou with the name of Belforte. Completely renovated between 1538 and 1546 by the Viceroy Don Pedro de Toledo, assumed its present star-shaped. It was the scene of the last desperate defense of the patriots of the Neapolitan Republic in 1799 against Bourbon reaction. Today often hosts international events due to its vastness and grandeur, and thanks to the beautiful city that offers Panorma.The Royal Palace has been the fulcrum of power in Naples from 1600 to 1946. Built at the behest of the viceroy Fernando Ruiz de Castro, was grossed by Domenico Fontana (which is particularly remarkable is the monumental facade on Piazza Plebiscite) and remodeled several times by different rulers. The rooms are lavishly decorated and painted in styles often differ according to the sovereign who lived there. In particular, the magnificent marble staircase of honor. The exotic garden was built in 1841. The facade was enriched at the end of the nineteenth century by the great statues of the main King of Naples: Roger the Norman, Frederick II of Swabia, Charles I of Anjou, Alfonso I of Aragon, Charles V, Charles III of Bourbon, Joachim Murat, King Vittorio Emanuele II of Savoy. It was inhabited by the Savoy until 1946.The Royal Palace of Capodimonte was built in the eighteenth century by Charles III in the pre-existing hunting ground of the hill. We lived and Ferdinand IV Joachim Murat, and in 1950 became the National Museum. In the halls houses the works of Michelangelo, Raphael, Botticelli and Caravaggio, and an important collection of porcelain. The vast park surrounding the palace is the main green lung of the city and a favorite destination of Neapolitan families on weekends. The National Archaeological Museum of Naples was originally designed in the seventeenth century as a university, but only between 1834 and 1860 became veritable museum moved there when Ferdinand IV of valuable marble Farnese collection. It currently contains a large collection of artefacts dating back to Roman times, from the sites of Pompeii and Herculaneum, marbles, mosaics, and un'impotante Egyptian collection. Its importance is in the primary circuit of museums worldwide. The Teatro San Carlo, which opened on November 4 of 1737 is the oldest active opera house in Europe today. In 1816 it was restored after a fire, and the present facade, porch and entrance hall date back to then. Among the artistic directors of theater include Gioacchino Rossini and Gaetano Donizetti.Watching the city from the first thing that attracts the observer is the enormous number of domes and crosses contraddistinugono the many churches. Naples is in fact characterized by the vast number of historic religious buildings. Among the main stands the monastery of Santa Chiara, in the heart of the old city, built between 1310 and 1340 at the behest of Robert of Anjou. Original Gothic plan followed a restructuring Barroca in the seventeenth century, not until in 1943 was almost entirely destroyed by massive Allied bombing and completely restored to its original Gothic form. The interior is striking for the breadth and simplicity, it houses the tomb of King Robert behind the altar and the chapels of the tombs is that of Queen Maria Cristina of Savoy and the national hero Salvo d'Acquisto, the policeman who under Nazi occupation sacrificed himself to save a few innocent civilians. Of great artistic quality is the cloister of the Clarisse, a small oasis of peace in a garden surrounded by a cloister lined with polychrome majolica tiles of the eighteenth century. The Church of Jesus is located in New Square, near Santa Clara. Inaugurated in 1597, was commissioned by the Jesuits and built on the site where the building was already Sanseverino Prince of Salerno. In true baroque style, the interior is richly decorated with gold stucco, frescoes and statues (most of whom Belisario Corenzio); you are honored several saints including Ignatius of Loyola and Giuseppe Moscati. The Duomo is central to the historical level. On his website there was probably a temple to Apollo, and the first cathedral was built by Constantine in the fourth century. The cathedral itself was built under the Angevins, but rimenaggiato continuously over the centuries to the point of being a collection of various styles: neo-Gothic facade of pseudo built in the nineteenth century, Gothic doorways, interior mostly Baroque: Baroque in particular in pure Naples is the Chapel of the Treasury. The fulcrum of the church, the Chapel houses a bronze statue of San Gennaro and 51 silver statues of the "Patrons". The treasure consists of various gifts of kings and wealthy devotees, among them being the gun Matthew Treglia silver enriched with precious stones. The Chapel is also kept the skull of the saint and above the bulb which contains his blood, the subject of the "miracle" of the world's most famous, that of liquefaction. The church of San Domenico Maggiore is also the result of a stratifcazione styles: built between 1283 and 1324 under Charles II of Anjou, was later restored after several failures in the seventeenth century Baroque style but an attempt to re-propose the original Gothic structure was made in the nineteenth century. In the Chapel of the Crucifix has indeed kept a crucifix that is said to have spoken to Thomas Aquinas, who taught theology in the adjacent convent University at the time. The Sacristy is frescoed with the triumph of the Dominican Order (which in fact lived in the church) by Francesco Solimena and are buried kings and nobles of Aragon. The San Severo Chapel was probably built by Giovan Francesco di Sangro, Duke of Torremaggiore in 1590 and used to house the tombs of the family San Severo. Among the many important statues and stands The Modesty of Antonio Corradini, particularly for its sensuality, and the famous Veiled Christ by Giuseppe Sanmartino of 1753 in which terrifies the artistic ability to reproduce the effect of icing on the marble body of Christ: ' attracted by Canova in his stay in Naples, to the point that he tried in vain to buy it. To conclude this carrelata still incomplete, to be mentioned is San Lorenzo Maggiore. Built by Charles I of Anjou in the thirteenth century on the site of an early Christian church whose remains have been reported recently in the light, as was always remodeled over the centuries and is a mixture of Baroque and Gothic. The bell tower was the scene of the revolt of Masaniello. The interior is home to the tombs of Catherine of Austria, Charles of Durazzo, and Giovanna, Robert d'Artois. In this church John Bocaccio Fiammetta met his love, and Francesco Petrarch we prayed on the night of November 4, 1343 terrorized by a fearsome storm prediction made by a hermit.Main street of Naples and the Neapolitans certainly preferred route is Via Toledo, until a few years ago called "Via Roma" and now named after the Viceroy Pedro de Toledo, who built it in 1536. Thanks to the pedestrian made the long road is now the fulcrum of the shopping center, with its numerous shops (especially clothing) and tourism with its elegant buildings that surround it: the monumental Banco di Napoli, built in the Fascist period, the Palazzo Doria On Angri, the Palazzo Colonna di Stigliano, the church of the Holy Spirit, square Escape, access east of the Galleria Umberto I. It connects to Piazza Trieste e Trento and the Plebiscite on the one hand, the other a symbol of modern Naples is Piazza del Plebiscite, which host concerts and events that made her famous among Italians. On it stands the Palazzo Reale and the particular shape is given by a semicircular colonnade of the Basilica of San Francesco di Paola, which forms an ellipse whose foci are located at two equestrian statues, one of Antonio Canova, depicting Charles III and the ' another of Anthony Cali depicting Ferdinand IV. Neapolitans are very dear to the statues of lions on the base to the sides of the colonnade. Its rediscovery has occurred under the administrations of the 90s that turned it from a public parking place for tourist and cultural initiatives in the heart of the square each year around Christmas relizzate are unique works of art, around which the opinions are divided of curious citizens who come to observe. The older Piazza Dante: between the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries was known as "Mercatello" because there they held their markets 'peripheral', but between 1757 and 1765 was completely rebuilt under Charles III by Louis Vanvitelli, who built the monumental amphitheater on whose top twenty-six erected statues depicting the virtues of the sovereign. In the center the equestrian statue of Charles was never located, was occupied by the tree of liberty during the Neapolitan Republic and then the statue of Napoleon Bonaparte during the reign of Murat. The current statue of Dante Alighieri, which gives its name to the square was placed after the unification of Italy. On the north side there is Port'Alba with its book market and the south side of the church of San Michele. In 2002 it was renovated and made more spacious to accommodate the underground subway. The building houses the boarding school and high school vanvitelliano Vittorio Emanuele. The area of ??San Gregorio Armeno between November and January attracts droves of tourists from all over the world. We held the market of the crib, the great Neapolitan Christmas tradition, and shops displaying the finest models and most unique of shepherds, holy, jesus children and other amenities. The street is named after important church itself, built between 1574 and 1580 with interior frescoes by Luca Giordano. Every Tuesday we held the miracle of liquefying blood of St. Patrizia tooth. Central is the area of ??Piazza del Ges¨ Nuovo and the adjoining Via Benedetto Croce: the square stands the church of that name while in the center stands a monumental 34-meter-high obelisk on top of which stands the bronze statue of the Immaculate Conception, built in 1747. On 8 December each year it hosts the ceremony of laying a wreath on the statue on top of the column. Via Benedetto Croce instead takes the name of the great Neapolitan philosopher origins of the Abruzzi in the road - and just to Filomarino Palace - lived in the main years of his life and founded the Institute of Historical Studies. On either side of the road overlooking historic buildings, to the church of Santa Chiara. The Naples promenade of Via Caracciolo is named in honor of Admiral of the same name of the Neapolitan Republic hanged by Horatio Nelson on his ship in the Gulf of the city. The road really is recent, dating from the late nineteenth century when it was taken from the sea that came to the Riviera di Chiaia. Now has waterfront behind the Villa Comunale and winds for miles on foot with a view. In recent years the council has made the fine bathing beaches near the cliffs make artificiali.La Villa Comunale was made by Ferdinand IV in 1780 to give the Neapolitan nobility a large oasis of sophistication on the seafront promenade, embellishing it with statues, fountains and trees exotic but forbidden to the people. Very differently, now the Villa is among the favorite destinations Neapolitan especially after the deterioration has been replaced by a restructuring in the late 90s that has fenced increasing infrastructure but retaining the original design. Inside of primary importance is the Antonio Dohrn Zoological Station, open to the public in 1874: it is the aquarium of Naples and located in a neoclassical building. It is one of the oldest and most famous aquariums in Europe. Besides the already mentioned Capodimonte Park, currently the main green lung of the city, whose plan was made today by the German Friedrich Dehenhard in 1833, is to quote the Villa Floridiana. The park is named after the Duchess of Floridia Lucia Migliaccio, his second wife of Ferdinand IV, who in fact lived in this villa on the Vomero park which was grossed in 1817 by Antonio Niccolini Dehenhard and style with neoclassical statues, fake ruins, groves, ravines and outdoor garden theater. The villa now houses the Museum of Ceramics of Martina while the area of ??the gulf has long been under renovation. More Astroni device is the oasis, led by WWF, which is located in a large volcanic basin dating to 3700 years ago in the Phlegrean Fields. Game reserve aragonese, then Charles III, was enriched with some towers and hunting lodges still exist. Completely immersed in the green oasis stands out for its large lake, the rich flora and the presence of numerous species of birds as well as small animals. The leisure center has a great appeal in the district of Fuorigrotta. Here stands the San Paolo Stadium opened in 1959 it has hosted soccer games for Napoli of Maradona's time and was renovated for the World Cup in 1990, the Overseas Exhibition realized in 1940 from fascism to accommodate the products of the colonies and become area of ??750,000 square meters with 9 exhibition halls for exhibitions and fairs, 30 conference rooms up to 2000 people, theater indoors and outdoors for a total of 3000 seats, two pools, four tennis courts, and which hosts numerous events national and international importance, the amusement park Edenlandia more 'ancient' in Italy, founded in 1965 with 22 attractions, although very popular in constant decline, the Zoological Garden founded in the 50s with many species of animals but failed in 2003 after a period of decadence and decay that has led to the deaths of hundreds of specimens, and that will be completely rebuilt segendo an avant-garde, and in addition the area is home to a bowling alley, a Multicinema with 11 rooms, fast food, amusement arcades, football, soccer and tennis, as well as the pool Scandone, Olympic, used for the races and water polo teams Neapolitan used previously for the Mediterranean Games of 1964. The site area was also the Sports Hall "John Silver" is intended to Basketball to other sports that both team and individual, demolished in 2005 and in the course of reconstruction. The basketball games are currently housed in a modernized PalaBarbuto, located opposite the old "John Silver" The administration intends to create new centers of attraction in other areas of Naples in Bagnoli, where it has established since 1993, the City of Science ('museum' scientific sui generis first in Europe), and in areas of the redevelopment of the Royal Hotel for the Poor - which will become City of Youth - and Management Centre. Main shopping thoroughfares in the city are, besides the already mentioned, the Via dei Mille and Martyrs' Square with shops and large prestigious Feltrinelli, the Vomero those of Scarlatti and Via Via Luca Giordano, and Soccavo to Via Epomeo. You can take guided tours into the ground showing the stratification of the territory of the city throughout history. Napoli Underground is a guided tour through old underground tanks, mostly dating back to greek-Roman: these tanks have been found through excavation in the basement of tuff, the typical rock on which the city was built. About a kilometer of tunnels, dozens of these in the city, is visited. In several places in the city and its surroundings are also several catacombs.In Naples, operating six universities: The University of Naples Federico II is the largest and oldest universities in the city. Born in contrast to that of Bologna, was founded by Frederick II in 1224, and is the second in Italy (In fact, the University of Padua was two years before, but it began as an offshoot of the University of Bologna, the opposition of some students who moved some of the teachings). The University Frederick II, who assumed the name of its founder with the decree of 7 September 1987, however, is the oldest state university, secular Europe, and is considered one of the most prestigious universities for legal and literary studies. Among others he taught the famous Greek scholar Marcello Gigante. The Second University of Naples was established in 1989 to relieve congestion in the Frederick, is divided into homogeneous poles located in the town of Aversa, Capua, Caserta, Santa Maria Capua Vetere, while operating in Naples has only courses of study in the health . The University of Naples "L'Orientale", Eastern College until 2002, was founded in 700 by his father as a missionary Matteo Ripa College of the Chinese and now the most prestigious European institution for philological and linguistic studies. And 'composed by the faculties of Humanities, Languages ??and Literatures, University of the Mediterranean and the Arab-Islamic, Political Science (with a focus on international relations). We will teach all the known ancient languages ??and over 140 modern language. The University of Naples "Parthenope", Naval College until 2001, was established in 1920 as a real Naval college (originally specialized in, and still famous for, the economic studies with a focus in international trade). The University "Suor Orsola Benincasa" (former college of the same name), is a free university founded by religious Orsola Benincasa, very prominent thinker in the intellectual salons of the period of the Counter Neapolitan (early seventeenth century), originally a college of teaching and still specializes in the humanities and social, with special emphasis on educational tradition introduced by educator Sister Ursula. Naples is also home to the Pontifical Theological Faculty of Southern Italy that you work through Section St. Thomas Aquinas and St. Louis the first section of which is linked to the archdiocesan seminary and stems from the theological faculty already in the first arrangement of ' Frederick University in 1224 and the second to the Society of Jesus (Jesuits). The theological faculty was founded in 1969 by uniting and leaving the two distinct scuole.Nel 1804 was open to the public, the Royal Library of Naples in the Palazzo degli Studi, now houses the National Archaeological Museum. The library collections in that area had been transferred from the Royal Palace of Capodimonte for real will. Bourbon in 1816 became the Royal Library, in 1860 with the unification of Italy was named the National Library. In 1910 the collection was enriched with the Herculaneum papyri found in the ruins of Herculaneum. In 1922, after lengthy debate and based on the suggestion of Benedetto Croce was moved to today in the Palazzo Reale in Piazza Plebiscite. It suffered many problems during the war for both the Nazi occupation and for the Allies, but the most valuable books were moved to safer locations until the reopening in 1945. Today the National Library "Vittorio Emanuele III" contains nearly two million volumes, approximately 20,000 manuscripts, more than 8,000 periodicals, 4,500 and 1,800 incunamboli Herculaneum papyri.In addition to the aforementioned City of Science and Aquarium Dohrn, of particular interest are other scientific sites. The Royal Botanical Gardens was built by Joseph Bonaparte in 1807 during the Napoleonic government-purpose, Enlightenment, and designed by architects De Fazio and Paoletti. Fallen into decay for the damages of the Second World War, was cleverly reworked and enriched in the 60s and 80s by director Aldo Merolla. Currently 12 acres are home to 25,000 plant specimens in the collections of all kinds prepared outdoors or in greenhouses. In the Jesuit Collegio Massimo Mezzocannone n.8 are located on a major science museums in Naples, edited by Frederick II: * The Museum of Zoology with a collection of birds, mammals and particularly interesting as that of shells from around the world. * The Museum of Paleontology with about 50,000 fossils from sites such as many of Campania, and a huge complete skeleton of Allosaurus. * The Museum of Anthropology with mummies and artifacts from around the world including findings of Troy and a Paleolithic human skeleton. * The Museum of Mineralogy with stones and minerals from around the world and the Mineralogical Museum Campano with about 3,500 copies. For amateur astronomers impossible not to mention the Astronomical Observatory of Capodimonte. Wanted by Joachim Murat in 1812, was inaugurated in 1819. Located 150 meters from sea level on the hill of Capodimonte, is engaged in observing the Sun, stars and galaxies thanks to access to the largest optical telescopes in the world and those in orbit. Public views are available by reservation. It also indicates the presence of numerous in July: * HackMeetNaples * IGLUG * NaLUG * Neapolis HacklabNaples for its entire history has been a prominent artistic capital. Even today maintains this tradition. The Academy of Fine Arts, founded by Charles III in 1752 as "Royal Academy of Design," was the center of the School of Posillipo in the nineteenth century and was directed by celebrities such as Domenico Morelli, Saverio Altamura, Gioacchino Toma . We will now take courses in painting, decoration, sculpture, stage design, restoration, street furniture, and school clothes. In 2005 was inaugurated in the eighteenth century palace in Via dei Mille Roccella PAN, Palazzo delle Arti Napoli, used to house art works and events of all persuasions. Is the historical tradition of the Conservatory of San Pietro a Majella, in the heart of the city, founded in 1826 by Francis I as the "Royal Conservatory of Music", and where today you take lessons for all musical instruments and has hosted a remarkable museum of music . Finally, to point out the great selection of theaters, a tradition among the oldest in Europe (San Carlo goes back to the eighteenth century), which now includes twelve major theaters.The Neapolitan musical life was very intense as early as the fifteenth to the seventeenth part of the sacred and secular polyphony. From the seventeenth and eighteenth century, especially in the Neapolitan school assumed a prominent role in the field of sacred music and opera with musicians such as Antonio Scarlatti, Giovanni Battista Pergolesi, Niccol˛ Porpora. Famous throughout the world is the Neapolitan song: the genre has its heyday in the second half of the 800 and the first half of the 900, a period in which the greatest poets and local musicians test themselves in the composition of many songs. An example of this trend is that of Gabriele d'Annunzio, who writes the lyrics of 'A Vucchella. The date of commencement of the golden age of Neapolitan song is set to 1835, when Naples was rife melody you want bbene assaje written by Raffaele Sacco and whose music is attributed to Gaetano Donizetti. The celebration of the feast of Piedigrotta is an ideal opportunity for the exhibition of new pieces, among the authors who see celebrities such as Salvatore di Giacomo, Libero Bovio, EA Mario Ernesto Murolo. Right in the twentieth century the song survives thanks to the primary role of the Festival of Naples, between controversy and scandal that is able to impose his song throughout Italy before they even claimed the Sanremo Festival. The historical parable of the Neapolitan song ends in the second half of the '60s, when the Festival is in crisis (ending in 1970) and the song loses connection with its classical heritage. The fame of this kind remains unchanged despite the passage of time, and all established singers routinely incorporate some of the most famous pieces in their repertoire following in the footsteps of Enrico Caruso and Beniamino Gigli. Other musical phenomenon of particular interest is the so-called melodrama that is based on the screenplay for a full theatrical performance of song from a popular topic. Since the 80s it was claimed, as a local phenomenon, the genre "neomelodico" several local authors and singers have composed songs, which generally deal with love stories set in the modern Naples. The result is certainly not comparable to that obtained by napoletata song itself, but in the local area such a great success: Gigi D'Alessio and D'Angelo are the most famous exponents of this genre, then they gradually abandoned. However, the wide array of songwriters and musicians who have given so modern and give their contribution to the continuation of traditional Neapolitan music: Pino Daniele, Edward Jackson and Eugene Jackson, Enzo Gragnaniello, Alan Parsons Project are just some of the "modern" the most famous .The Neapolitan theater is one of the oldest known artistic traditions of the city. The first traces of this tradition dates back to the poem by Jacopo Sannazaro that between the late fifteenth and early sixteenth recited his farces at the Angevin court first, then Aragonese. At the popular level in this period is the famous Velardiniello, storytellers street. The pre-twentieth century Neapolitan theater was essentially tied to the mask of Pulcinella. As stated Benedetto Croce in his studies on the subject, rather than a Pulcinella mask sets is a mask whose character was shaped by many actors who have played, and often - especially in the period of Spanish rule - have used it as an instrument of satire and political criticism. Pulcinella is a character that is always a way around Naples to see the world, is a person of humble social status thanks to his cunning and his art of arrangement somehow manages to have their way. Important for the Neapolitan theater is the way in which Pulcinella is 'reworked' from the nineteenth century. The last and perhaps the greatest interpreter of Pulcinella was actually Antonio Petito (1822-1876), who transformed the character of the city of Naples foolish servant par excellence, and burlonesco smart, modern-thus allowing its transformation by Eduardo Scarpetta . Petito hired by the age of fifteen years, Eduardo Scarpetta had the task of embodying the company's character Happy Sciosciammocca Petito (literally "Happy blows in the mouth"), comedian supporter of Pulcinella. On the death of Petito, and the disappearance of the character of Pulcinella, Scarpetta became an interpreter of the change of taste in the Neapolitan public. Then eliminated permanently obsolete by introducing the mask characters of urban middle class that pushed unchanged but the characters farcical tradition. His comedies of Happy Sciosciammocca gained a huge success in Naples (Scarpetta became rich beyond imagination), and paved the way for the success of the brothers De Filippo. Illegitimate children of the same Scarpetta, in fact, being born from an affair with Louise de Philip, nephew of the wife of Scarpetta (Rosa de Filippo), the three most famous brothers in the Italian theater, Eduardo De Filippo, Peppino De Filippo De Filippo started very young and Titina to the stage (Eduardo just 4 years) and in 1931 - after having formed their own theater company - made their debut together with the one-act Christmas at Cupiello. The success of these three actors was consecrated by a sensational touring in Italian cities, although under Fascism Eduardo had many problems for his positions contrary to the regime. Only with the end of the dictatorship that the success of De Filippo come to historical levels of comedies such as Naples Millionaire and Filomena Marturano. Set in Naples, a disillusioned war in full, these plays also established themselves on an international scale (Filomena Marturano was also represented at Bucharest in 1947) for their strong likelihood to the contemporary reality - thus abandoning the farcical end in itself that had characterized the theater of Pulcinella and Scarpetta - and the personalities of De Filippo established themselves for their interpretive verve, the intense expression, the painful gestures, spontaneity and vitality of the characters personified, always in the middle between comedy and drama. Later De Filippo, after knowing the person and the production of Luigi Pirandello, adapted and performed some of his famous plays (eg The cap and bells) finding there too inexplicable fine line between reality and fiction, between ' humor and tragedy that characterizes human nature. More on burlesque Peppino instead aligned itself after the war, abandoning Eduardo for several disagreements and throwing himself into the cinema where Toto interpet˛ with some of the most memorable comedies (Toto, Peppino and La banda malefemmena and the honest), and established himself with Titina His interpretation of Filomena Marturano remained in theater history. Eduardo in recent years also adapted plays by Moliere and Goldoni, then opening his own expense in 1964, the Teatro San Fernando. The personality of Toto (Antonio de Curtis), also known nationally, is imposed at the cinema but collects his first success on the theater in which she stars alongside Eduardo De Filippo and Titin. While not reaping the dramatic implications of the comedy by Eduardo, Toto is aligned with the theater does not, however, a certain return to disedegnando burlonesco pulcinelliano mold.Naples has a long sporting tradition but rarely led city teams to win national championships and European Cups, among other very rare event in all Central-Southern Italy. The exceptions are Water polo teams (the Posillipo has nine league titles, the last of this year) and Napoli Soccer and Rugby in the years of Maradona won 2 times the title of Champion of Italy and a UEFA Cup. On 26 May 1996 the 8th stage of Tour of Italy ended in Naples with the victory of Mario Cipollini, almost twenty years before the tour stopped in Naples, the goal of a time trial stage won by Francesco Moser. Instead the array of thick Neapolitan athletes who have given Italy the Olympic and world titles. Among the many remember the brothers Giuseppe and Carmine Abbagnale (rowing champions, seven world titles and two Olympic gold medals), the boxer Patrizio Oliva (three European titles, a world gold medal in Moscow) and the swimmer Massimiliano Rosolino (a madaglia world title and the gold in Sydney), another young swimmer, Catherine Jackets, champion at the European level (fourth in the 200 butterfly at the World Swimming Championships in Montreal) starts at Olympic level results. Naples, among others, has been chosen to host the 2006 World Cup swimming in open water. Among the sporting events still remember swimming marathon Naples-Capri-Naples, the Grand Prize Raffle Agnano Trot and the Cycling Tour] of Campania.Pizza, Vesuvius and mandolin are the three famous magical words that are associated with Naples in the collective mentality. Much of his most famous monuments, the Neapolitan traditions are well known, celebrated - and sometimes caricaturizzate - around the world.The pizza, immortal symbol of Naples, was actually a very old story: it spreads in Naples between the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, but without the features currently known. It is in fact originally a variant of the cake, enriched with lard and basil or later with tomato and buffalo mozzarella. Only in the nineteenth century broke out 'fashion', and the first true pizzeria where you know the name was opened in 1830 in the Port'Alba. The best-known classic recipe dates back to 1889. In that year, King Umberto I and his consort Queen Margherita visited Naples for a few days and at the request of the queen was called to the palace of Capodimonte pizziaolo the most famous of the time - the "don" Raffaele Esposito - who assisted by his wife Rosa for Sforno royalty, along with two pizzas 'classic', one with tomato, mozzarella and basil to represent the three colors of the Italian flag. This pizza thrilled the Queen, and Don Raffaele in his honor called "Pizza Margherita". Commonly there are four traditional pizzas: the Napoletana (tomato, garlic and basil), the Margherita, Marinara (tomato and anchovies) and the Four Seasons (divided into four segments each dressed differently). Marinara is often confused with the Neapolitan. Today the number of variants of the classic pizza is potentially infinite, after the Neapolitan tradition has spread successfully in the world and has been adapted to the different tastes of the people: it is no coincidence that in 2003 the contest for the best pizza in Naples is was won by a young Japanese Makato Onishi. A couple of years the European Union, to preserve the original recipe of the pizza, adopted the eco-TSG (Traditional Speciality Guaranteed). Each year in Naples in September held at the headquarters of the Pizzafest Overseas Exhibition at reasonable prices where you can enjoy a pizza by choosing from dozens of pizza outdoors. But it certainly does not stop at pizza the vast sample of Neapolitan cuisine. It necessary to mention the spaghetti: the typical image of the hungry Punchinellos s'ingozza with a plateful of spaghetti with tomato sauce was echoed by Toto in her Misery and Nobility. The most common way to cook spaghetti (or vermicelli) in Naples is to serve with the clams. The spaghetti with clams can be either white or col pomodoro (traditional divides) and can be seasoned or clams or lupins. Another tradition is that of the meat sauce, a typical Sunday dish. Probably derived from the French ragout, the meat sauce Neapolitan ('o rra¨ in dialect, celebrated in a poem by De Filippo) is a sauce of long and elaborate preparation (five to six hours of cooking) served with tomato and beef or pork in Carnival time, and must be served over pasta with a hole. Very famous is the tradition Neapolitan pastry. Among the many specialties, the best known is perhaps the puff, which can be curly or pastry depending on the preparation of puff pastry that consists of: built in the eighteenth century in the monastery of Santa Rosa near Amalfi, the filling is made with cream cottage cheese, pudding, candied fruit, vanilla and cedar. Then there is the baba, perhaps of Polish origin, made with sweet soft dough soaked in syrup made from lemon and rum and then the surface can be covered with pastry cream and fresh fruit. The donuts eaten on the day of St. Joseph - and that is why they are sometimes confused with the zeppole di San Giuseppe (cream puffs) - are in Naples cimabelline soft sugar coated candy. Then there are sweets linked to holidays, such as pastiera you eat for Easter made with puff pastry and baked with cheese and corn, lime, orange and candied pumpkin. At Christmas there are struffoli small fried balls covered with candied diavolillis (colored sprinkles) and honey, which is supposed to have been worn by the ancient Greeks ('stroungolous' is a word that means 'rounded'). A carnival, finally, there are rumors, fried and covered with powdered sugar, pudding and cream originally made of pig's blood and now flavored with cinnamon chocolate.Although the tradition attributing the birth of the first Nativity scene in St. Francis of Assisi in 1223, the art is typically Neapolitan crib. The first manifestations of this phenomenon date back to 1340 when Queen Sancha of Aragon (wife of Robert of Anjou) gave to the Poor Clares a crib for their new church, which today remains the statue in the museum of San Martino. Other examples date back to 1478, with a crib of Pietro and Giovanni Alemanno, of which there are twelve statues arrived, and the crib of marble in 1475 by Antonio Rossellino, visible in Sant'Anna dei Lombardi. In the seventeenth century the crib (which comes from the Latin word "praesepe" or "Praesepium" which means "manger") expanded its scenery. Was no longer represented the only cave of the Nativity, but also throughout the world 'profane' outside: in pure baroque style, spread the representations of the taverns well exposed fresh meat and fruit and vegetable baskets and gorgeous scenes became and detailed (Michael Perrone was among the leading artists in this field), while the characters became smaller: wood or papier-mÔchÚ dummies are also favorites in the eighteenth century. The eighteenth century was indeed the golden age of the crib: principals were no longer just the religious orders, but also the rich and noble. The scene moves increasingly beyond the group of the holy family and more interested in secular terms of shepherds, pedlars, of the Magi, the anatomy of animals. Although Vanvitelli called the crib art "a prank", all the great sculptors wrestled in it forwarded to the nineteenth century. Perhaps the most famous and acclaimed examples of Neapolitan crib is the crib Cuciniello made between 1887 and 1889 and exhibited at San Martino. In the twentieth century this tradition is gradually disappearing, but today large allesiti cribs are regularly in all the main churches of the city and many Neapolitans still get prepared in their homes by buying the figurines in Via San Gregorio Armeno during the Christmas period. Like 'or crib?: The famous line from Eduardo De Filippo in Christmas at home Cupiello summarizes the gradual disappearance of the tradition of the crib.Although the lottery to have originated in Italy around 1539 in Genoa, it is strongly linked to the city of Naples, where he was introduced relatively late, in 1682. The strong religiosity of the people of Naples led to the "moral issues" since the Church had forbidden, and after a terremotto was abolished in 1688 because it was considered because of divine punishment. However on the passion of the game won, the lot was reintroduced and the monarchy believed oppurtuno regulate it in order to draw the necessary profits. Every Saturday extractions were held before the Grand Court of Auditors and two witnesses to the people at the Palace of the Vicar. The official batch and lot in 'black' (prerogative - unfortunately - Neapolitan) caused the reaction of intellectuals, including Matilde Serao that in his Belly of Naples criticized in two chapters dedicated to the degradation of the game made the common people. However, remains tied to the tradition of Naples Grimace. The term, derived from "Morpheus", the greek god of dreams, refers to the habit of playing numbers 'received' in a dream. These numbers are almost never explicitly received, but processed in accordance with a system that has its origins in the Jewish Cabala, and that states that for every event, action or character dreamed corrispone a number. Numerous are the books that allows to establish this correspondence. Today the numbers most famous are those related to bingo, sort of homemade batch played by Neapolitan families at Christmas. Just read some of them to realize the substratum of superstition on which this game: 48, "'Or am dead to speak," 85 is "L'anema priatorio d'or" (the souls in Purgatory), and so on . Tied to face is the Munaciello, demonic spirit, but sometimes benign, which has dominated the stories and legends for centuries Naples, and that is still feared and respected by more traditional Neapolitan (not to say backward). Sometimes munaciello gives to him who had the haunted house by his presence the numbers from the lottery, but keep the secret and not confide in others. Sometimes it is only doing naughty, but sometimes even leads people to madness and death. Matilde Serao tells the origin of this being: it seems to have been the result of a relationship between a young bourgeois aragonese (such Catarinella Frezza) and a commoner, Stephen Mariconda. The report, opposed by her family, led to the killing of Stephen and the closure of the convent Catarinella, which however had a son, a cripple, the nuns dressed as a monk to hide the deformity. It would therefore this' or munaciello. Others say that the munaciello was the administrator of the city wells, which often poisoned. Many other legends are still collected from the Neapolitan Serao in his Legends Neapolitan Benedetto Croce and the volume of stories and legends from Naples. The Neapolitan folklore is also strongly linked to a form of popular piety which most often ends in a resurgence of paganism. In particular, dominates the cult of saints, and a wide variety of different 'versions' of the Virgin Mary, cult of which you can have clear examples in the numerous shrines in downtown alleys. At one of these kiosks is tied to the tradition of the Madonna of the Arch, whose name derives from a shrine of St. Anastasia, which represents a Madonna called "arc" because this village on the outskirts of Naples was marked by the arches of a ancient Roman aqueduct. On Easter Monday of 1450, as the story goes, a young man who played ball-mallet angrily threw the ball against the image of the Madonna, who began to bleed. Later, he repeated a huge number of miracles with the image of the Madonna as the star (in 1849 it was visited by Pope Pius IX) and every year near Easter processions take place adoring supplicants and culminating on Easter Monday before image of the Madonna, where the so-called fujenti ("those who run" in Neapolitan) beg so colorful image. Famous is also the Madonna of Pompeii, a place of pilgrimage for devotees, and Our Lady of Montevergine in the province of Avellino, whose celebration is held on September 12. One of the most beloved saints is then Giuseppe Moscati, who was canonized by Pope John Paul II in 1987: young and worthy physician of the Hospital of the Incurables, Moscati was esteemed by all the poor and miserable, who went to his house to make a private visit often without pay . Renowned physician and researcher, was dominated by an unshakable faith that infused even Pietro Castellino and colleagues such as Leonard White. Finally particular should be made to San Gennaro, the patron saint of the city (whose real name was Ianuario, because she belonged to the Gens Ianuaria), martyred under Diocletian in 305. Her blood was collected in an ampoule, and in 431 apparently for the first time and then suddenly broke ricoagularsi. This event has historically been witnessed for the first time in 1389, and was repeated up to date, except for some 'breaks' that traditionally correspond to major disasters around the city. Today the miracle takes place three times a year: in the first place on September 19, the day of martyrdom, and then the day before the first Sunday of May (when his remains were moved from Benevento to Naples), and finally on December 16, the anniversary of his most famous miracle occurred in 1631, when the Neapolitans took the saint's statue at Ponte della Maddalena and the lava of Vesuvius in eruption stopped saving the city. The miracle of the blood has been the subject of numerous complaints, of which the promoter has made CICAP (Italian Committee for the Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal) who embraced the claim credited by many scholars that the blood is a liquid gel-like, provided that the thixotropic properties, which then leads to melt when moved mechanically. The populace, however, still remains tied to the miracle and the saint, and is famous the phrase appeared on the walls of the city when the Second Vatican Council decreed the worship of the local area solely that of the saint: San Genna ', futtatenne! (San Gennaro, fregatene).On the one hand, the Camorra, the other the phenomenon of juvenile delinquency, not to mention the huge number of robberies. These are the main factors that have made Naples the Italian city more unbearable with regard to crime, a plague that has severely diminished the value in the eyes of tourism, one of the first victims of this phenomenon. The figures speak for themselves: between 2003 and 2004 there were 107 murders, most of them linked to the Camorra, 83 are detected. Huge number of thefts and robberies: 3434's 'snatching', often of precious watches stolen and then sold to tourists in the United States, or where the market of mobile phones stolen in Naples is endless, pick-pocketing, 3287, almost always made by two persons aboard a motor; 7896 car theft and theft of motorcycle 3790, which in most cases end with the despicable phenomenon of "horse back" (a shady person shows up asking for money in exchange for return of half), lower than in other cities the number of robberies in houses, because citizens have long been organized with alarm systems and bars on the windows of houses in the cases in the lower floors. All this without counting the number undoubtedly more cases not reported. Flourishing drug trade in the hands of the Camorra (almost fifteen kilos of drugs were seized in 2004), and the sale of pirated CDs and DVDs, so that the discs seized more than 26000 cover only a percentage close to 10% of phenomenon of sale. Juvenile delinquency remains high, and in anumento with the phenomenon of baby-gang dominant in areas that once defined the "good Napoli" (Vomero, Chiaia) now also prey of kids from the suburbs through the subway system or even 'native' (not a few, in fact, the baby-gang composed of children of unsuspecting and honest professionals). The Camorra has ancient origins dating back to the times of Spanish rule in Naples. It is believed that some members of the Spanish "Brotherhood of Garduna" (dedicated to robbery), founded in 1417 and have taught Neapolitan criminals of the time the success of their organization, founded on a top-down structure with well-defined tasks. But the Camorra was born officially in 1820 under the name Beautiful Reformed Society (= Confederate) with a more hierarchical structure than the current one and dedicated to extortion and usury, dominant mainly in the gambling dens. It is believed that the term 'mafia' comes from "morra", a game of chance popular in Naples in the seventeenth and eighteenth century was in fact on which a set percentage to be paid to the Camorra. The modern Camorra was born after World War II, however, in a situation - Neapolitan - bleak, where only contrabbandono and allow the black market survival. Is imposed with the smuggling of cigarettes, but the apogee of his power obtained with the drug trafficking that was born around the 70s. And 'the contemporary Camorra, the most violent and bloody, dominated by the NCO, the New Organized Camorra Raffaele Cutolo operating until 1983 and then dies creating an incredible fragmentation of clans and leading to the conviction in 1987 of the same Cutolo. Decrease the murders and even arrogance public organization (the sensational murder of journalist Giancarlo Siani in 1985, 26 year old, because he wrote an article "shameful"), increases the turnover. Greatly needed and new clans: the Julian, the Mazzarella, Di Lauro, and new markets, immigration, prostitution, the sale of CDs. Today it is estimated that the turnover of the Camorra is around 13 billion euros a year, half of the proceeds derived from drug trafficking, about two billion from arms trafficking. Its structure is no longer very gerachizzata, is composed of local clans that make and unmake the time, almost always at war with each other. Between 2004 and 2005 the war between the Di Lauro clan and the "splitters" to control drug trafficking in neighborhoods of Scampia and Secondigliano has produced more than sixty dead. On 16 September 2005 Paolo Di Lauro, a number of the Neapolitan Camorra, has been arrested. The biggest problem, as for him and hundreds of gangsters still in prison, is to prevent that from behind bars to continue to manage the activities of his family. The Camorra, however, remains prosperous.Part of the success of such phenomena as the Camorra in Naples have originated from a widespread attitude that could be called "culture of lawlessness", resulting from a complete absence of civic sense. This attitude is reflected at several levels. For example, the use of helmets on mopeds reaches very low percentages, so that the order for seizure of the vehicle in such cases - issued in September of 2005 - has seen in Napoli around 1000 kidnappings over nearly two months. It is also rare to see entire families of three or four people, driving on a moped approved for the carriage of no more than two people. Example of this mentality is still the 'legend' widespread in recent years that an ingenious Neapolitan would have sold T-shirts with a black stripe across in imitation of seat belts, for those who did not yield to the imposition of fasten. Failure to comply with traffic signals, rights of way, way streets, parking lots is another constant of urban traffic. To this are added other examples: the Italian city Naples is where you buy more CDs and DVDs false. Noto was also the phenomenon of thousands of users who had access to satellite television programming without being subscribers, through changes of its own decoder. On buses, many users do not obliterate the ticket, and it is not uncommon to see the impotence of the controls before all'irruenza in charge of people who claim not to have to be fined. These behaviors are highlighted - as usual in an almost theatrical in Naples - but unfortunately are now part of the normality of several large Italian cities. These phenomena are joined by other much more serious. Illegal working is dominant, and for many Neapolitans is the only way out of the rampant unemployment (around 25%). The highest car insurance premiums are solved with false insurance or simply failing to ensure their vehicle, with the result that the cost increase of RCA. A huge number of people (about 100,000) get through cheating the disability pension, with high costs for administration. It is not rare, the phenomenon of 'bribes', ie the recommendations in schools and universities (dipomi bought and access to a limited number of degree courses 'sold' up to 50,000 euros) and in the workplace. Finally alarming school dropout: if England has the highest rate, it is only because there is work more easily. In the province of Naples, where a boy of five does not show up at school (about 17 thousand between 7 and 13 years), the phenomenon is due to the ideas of parents who prefer to work illegally, their child or give it to the Camorra to bring revenue family: a thought that damage to the sense of basic decency.Other factors contributing to the livability of the city are poor urban decay and the phenomenon of illegal. The problem of waste grips Naples for several years. It is estimated that all Neapolitans produces on average 1.5 kg of garbage per day, and that every year in Campania they produce two and a half million tons. The Centers for combustion of waste on the outskirts of the city are always working very slowly, and landfills - for p¨ abusive and managed by the Camorra - are opened and closed constantly. Periodically, the city is literally flooded with piles of uncollected rubbish from agents of the garbage collection, which frequently are calling strikes. The solution recommended by the Government and the Region has been the creation of a large plant near Acerra incinerator: local residents have responded with riots and demonstrations by preventing the construction of the plant. The system of sorting, performed with great generosity of means, not as successful as hoped because of the indifference of most citizens. The question still remains unresolved, and high severity for the livability and health of Naples and the province. In addition, the degradation and neglect of many infrastructure of the city, often left to themselves: case studies than the zoo, dell'Edenlandia, the Overseas Exhibition, sports facilities, parks. Many new structures are paralyzed by bureaucracy, and not realized after years and years of planning, the abandoned area Italsider, for example, and new infrastructure in the neighborhoods and Soccavo Plain. Bureaucracy 'sick' is another serious problem, found in government and in health, leading citizens of exasperation (and misrule is always in the Camorra has thrived and still thrives). Bleak the situation of the road network, inadequate and continuously resettled (every year, hundreds of construction sites for such work): rainstorms like those of September 15, 2001 and September 18, 2005 (the latter less destructive) have produced enormous damage to the roads and give way to the sewers bursting. It then adds the phenomenon of illegal construction, which dominates in the more recent additions, in particular Plain - built without any plan at all and abused - and in the outlying areas on the slopes of Vesuvius, among other things, exposed to severe volcanic risk -Seismic.