When primitive man homo primigenius felt the need to express joy or sorrow, certainly went out of his cave emitting guttural sounds and trying, in a certain way, to give vent to his feelings and his first feeling was indescribable. If his eye, also stopped to admire the sunrise or a fiery sunset, although primigenius, could not remain indifferent to such beauty. If, then, everything was surrounded by a landscape of lush green valleys and lush with flowers, birds and grazing animals that crossed the sky, his instinct, of course, forced him to break that silence causing it to emit a cry of joy and a straight tone, busy, full of happiness. That perhaps was the first sound or song that has made the man, trying to communicate with everything around him and everything he owns.
This was merely a demonstration of love and love is in hand, the right way to make both feel that understanding, the proper expression that reaches the hearts of those who listen to us.
Thus, the first love song was born from a legend that told of the origins of our city.
Partenope, whose lush beauty resembled that of Juno and Minerva, was a beautiful Greek girl blacks eyes, full lips, long hair and blacks, velvety skin of a body made of admirable forms. She loved it, and Cimon was returned with equal intensity, but her father wanted her to be married to Eumaeus she loved.
Partenope, which etymologically in Greek means "view of the virgin", proud of the name he used to sit on the very rock and fix his gaze the expanse of sea and lost, so, in the contemplation of the horizon of Ionian thought: "Besides that sea, far away, where the horizon is curved, other regions, other countries, the unknown, the wondrous, the indefinable! "
Absorbed in these thoughts, the girl "felt magnify the power of his spirit, and raised up, it seemed to touch the sky and to shake his head, in its infinite embrace the whole world!"
"She loves Cimone with the unique, powerful, dominant love of the maiden who is transformed into a woman." In large eyes blacks in Parthenope check a few tears when he decides, with her beloved Cimon, to leave everything and everyone leaving for distant shores.
A powerful and unsurpassed love binds them to each other to induce them to leave without hope of return, to go far away entrusting their fate to the waves of the sea always enemies of the lovers.
"I love you!" She whispered, and he, clasping him: "I love myself!" So softly, then, loving hard, go wandering in the lido beach looking for a worthy home for their love (M . Serao Legends).
An enchanting beach waiting for them since time immemorial, and many many springs had been given to the fertile hills and mountains, flowers of many colors in a dazzling nature and very wonderful. Even the sea, eternally in love, waiting for the lovers.
As the earth, destined to reciprocate love, the seed is waiting to give him back his life, so, all Nature waited those they brought with them the love, love, life.
The hills of Posillipo, Vomero, Poggioreale and Capodimonte long waited, anxious to feel the tremors and welcome in an intense embrace of lovers on the run for a love that never dies, it can never die.
Finally, eros, pulse eternal, divine landed on the shore, and there, and Partenope Cimon lived their love and then took him to the hills, golden beaches, hidden caves, valleys, everywhere. Wherever they are also loved nature intensely loved it and they were the first players in a party with no time, running in the fields in bloom and admiring the fiery craters, comparing this explosion glow, this disruptive nature of the event to fiery passion of their hearts.
We see the lovely Parthenope, golden expanse of beach on the arena of Megaride, singing a love Cimone stroking his curly hair and blacks and holding out, in an endless embrace, his lips swollen and sensitive.
In the enchanted gardens gathered the most beautiful flowers, each flower was a kiss, kisses and flowers inexhaustible: this was the lively passion of two lovers arrived at the shore of love.
Often, at sunrise and sunset on the blue horizon of the sea, stood greek profile, beautiful, Partenope and the virile and vigorous Cimone: an eternal embrace binds them in an eternal, invincible love. It was his triumph in a lush, lovely, and it was this burning passion, described in this mythical legend that became singing sap inexhaustible for our immortal Naples. A song of love kissed the hills, valleys, beaches, gardens in bloom began, well, the history of the Neapolitan song, eternal harmony, since then, hovering on our gulf enchanted, and that, in centuries to come, begat a perpetual song of love, from which arose before, the folk song, folk song and then finally the true and noble Neapolitan song.
The origins of the Neapolitan song lost in the mists of time, myths and legends, it finds its roots in the gentle, passionate expressions of beautiful singing Partenope.
Partenope, then, is the muse of the Neapolitan song, is the same song of Naples, happy union of deep feeling, passions strong, of empiti life, sweetness and tenderness fascinatrici, the joys steeped in melancholy.
The three forms of expression of the Neapolitan song
The Love Song of Partenope we consider the starting line of the History of the Neapolitan song: its origins are a legend and a myth that, in future centuries will become reality and then, in this reality, we find ourselves to better understand the cycle historical music of our song. Naples has always been his and sung: joy, pain, love, tragedies, passions, his singing is the most intimate essence of the world, in every aspect that is inherent universal value that everyone envies . Naples is a city that over the centuries, has always amazed people for his distinctive singing, so much as to write the great poet L. Bovio in one of his songs:
"... And the 'know' napulitano
singing nun and I die! "
The study of the Neapolitan people etnofonico and his hand is lost in a time immemorial and, myths and legends, the foundation of Neapolis goes back to 1029 BC about three centuries before Rome. Starting from this premise is correct to find in the legend of the love song of Partenope, the roots of our music and our immortal song.
To better understand the historical significance of the Neapolitan song music must have grasped the concept of three expressions, the historian Sebastian Massa considers fundamental to the merits of this type of song:
a) folk song
b) folk song
c) a noble Neapolitan song copyrights
Folk song or folk song
He says the song, or folk song, the composition is the result of collective creation or anonymous, in which the people express their feelings and where poetry and music (vocal or melody) are indivisible.
Rubieri states that "The people, in fact, does not sing to create poetry, but it creates poetry and sing. Hence when it loses the music to lose. "
The song or folk song is only transmitted orally from generation to generation, in every region undergoing modifications to the text and, sometimes, with some variation of music, because the song is not popular folk song of Naples city, but to a people rural and seaside living in the countryside, the sea, mountains and valleys of the surrounding region.
The siren song (as told by Homer), or the love song of the beautiful Partenope, characterized the popular song of the inhabitants of this enchanted land, whose echo continues on, even today, in the cadences of the voices of street vendors, in dirges seamanship, the frenetic pace of her tarantella.
The historical cycle of popular song were no documents, but only a myth and a legend and poetic tradition.
One of the first, safe moments of poetic expressions and singing of the people we find, for indication of scholars agree, in Petronius Arbiter's Satyricon (the Roman character of the court of Nero).
The author describes the song to stretch (now "singing girl") of two young people, the cry of the seller of seafood, the cry of women selling vegetables and declaim of the heroics of a storyteller.
In the traditions and customs are popular and rustic, this, yet many tracks and so many echoes: the popular love songs, folk songs and chants lovers of women, make this the dominant popular song that has always accompanied, in humble homes and in work camps, the labor of men.
So popular song is all that comes spontaneously from the people, which exactly transforms and transmits it, then orally to the children of our children.
The folk song has been defined as part of an author for the people and inspired by the spirit and sentiment of the people themselves, this is due to the fact that poetry and music to be born at different times by two different artistic personalities: the poet and that of the musician.
The folk song has specific characteristics: non impersonality of the authors (poet and musician), which are inspired by the people and have turned to it and its behavior can not undergo transformations or, better, sort of tampering by other preserving, over time, the personal artistic mark which hardly renounce the authors. These authors find material for their folk poetry, in actual fact, in spots, the color picture, description of types and costumes, in the evocation of legends and folk traditions; in reproduction, ie, of their daily life, picturesque , sometimes comic, sometimes tragic, however, varied and of their own people including those living authors.
This result can also reach the non-educated poets melodisti with the musicians, that is, not transcribers, not connoisseurs of music, as long as everything is instinctive and inspired by the simplicity of their minds full of freshness that makes them look genuine representatives of the people, which have been able to properly express the spirit and feeling.
The city of Naples, in itself, is low in popular songs and, as such, unable to feed his songs popolareschi. The Campania and neighboring regions have been the reservoir of popular songs and they all have their own contribution, with the help of their wealth, that is the heritage of singing all the surrounding peoples, to feed the source where it is still gushing, gushing, the poetic and musical folk song.
Noble Neapolitan song copyrights
The Neapolitan song lyrics copyright is most noble and intensity of inspiration and, as Luke writes in his introduction to the book Tower of Poems and Songs of S. James, that type of song "transfers, in verse, rarefied atmosphere twilight vedutistiche vibration-visions of the world city where he lives and works its author."
The author of a noble Neapolitan song is a song composed of subjective lyric poetry, not written for everyone else, but mirroring and expressing moods of the poet. The musician is helped in his task because, in this case, poetry is already music, is already singing, so two different personalities, two states of mind, then contribute to the realization of a real song of the noble author.
When the song writing is thus elevated to the dignity of art and the public accepts it, making her his, success and his immortality is assured, as confirmed by some of the songs of S. James and other poets, musicians.
The real song writing, the primary cultural and artistic heritage of our city, was born, as exquisite and complete art form, the last two decades of the nineteenth century, and if it rises to the dignity of art and universal value, it must only and only the interest that it has given the real poets and real musicians. These songs are still alive, successful and acclaimed worldwide, superbly sung by Caruso, by Pasquariello, Sergio Bruni, by Aurelio Fierro, Roberto Murolo, Pavarotti and many others who, in these songs, have exalted the 'noble spirit of the city of Naples, worthy daughter of the mermaid Partenope.
Naples, as the legend of Partenope is an eternal song of love is immortal.
The historical roots of the Neapolitan song
Clarified the concept of folk song, folk song and noble Neapolitan song copyrights, we can definitely go to the historical part of his musical cycle.
I do not agree with those authors who choose a date in the history of Naples home to say that in that year came the Neapolitan song is a way offhand to avoid facing the real problem, namely the study of all these historical cycles who prepared the advent and development of real Neapolitan song, that is, that noble author who has given so much prestige to our city.
The same Max Vajro writes that the problem of the origins of Neapolitan song has yet to be resolved, while Sebastian Massa confirms that this source lies in the popular song, as every beginning of periods or cycles of life of it comes from a constantly regenerating carried on singing folksy now come to decay, or comes from the popular song, which is kept pure and uncontaminated, while turning, constantly, depending on the evolution of the popular spirit, in different eras.
All this confirms my thesis that the roots of Neapolitan songs are rooted in the legend of the love song of the beautiful Partenope, over time, has given rise to this popular song and then giving rise to the folk-singing and, on 'combination of these trends has resulted in the true Neapolitan song copyrights universalized in his immortality, which, as legend goes safely into the centuries tributaries. These centuries saw the landing, in the gulf enchanted, the lovely Parthenope with his Cimon, listened to his songs of love and nostalgia lovers, lived the founding of the city of Partenope (1029 years BC), of Palepolis (seventh century BC) and Neapolis (fifth century BC), admired the greek-Roman Naples with its theaters, sports halls and gymnasiums, the Naples of his songs with Virgil and Statius, the Naples of Augustus with the grotto of Priapus in the Posillipo hill where chants echoed fescennini, Etruscan and Latin, the Emperor Justinian Naples jealously defending civilization against the barbarians and the Roman who will be a beacon of culture and civilization, showing the rightful heir of the ancient Roman Empire.
Imperial Rome occupies Greece and greek cultural world as a bargaining chip also offers the music of which is the subject of study like art and science. Check the horizon Christianity with its religious songs; Nero Odeon theater in Neapolis sings applauded by the Neapolitans. At that time Satyricon Petronius Arbiter wrote in Cuma informing us, after so many centuries, which even then had the Neapolis and sang their folk songs: the fall of the Roman and medieval lead centuries of silence and barbarism, Christianity triumphs its Gregorian chants and, in the districts, comes the Canticle of St. Francis of Assisi, while the people found themselves with its popular songs. Here come the jesters, the sirventese, while the people sing the strambotto, the song, the lie, the ballad and the madrigal.
The Neapolitan song from 1300 to 1500
Alfonso V of Aragon conquered the city of Naples and imposed as the official language of the kingdom, the Neapolitan dialect (1443), created the first Neapolitan poets and the early literature.
Already in 1200, in the hills of Vomero, beautiful girls invoked the sun to come out early to dry the sheets hung in the wind:
"Jesce sun, sun jesce,
You do not cchiù suspirà.
Siente maje that the ffigliole
have as much to own ".
This song is renewed for ever the love song of the Virgin Partenope, the only source that the legend has brought to us, only time some where it started in the chariot of the Sun God shining and iridescent wave of the sea currents, the melodic journey of the Neapolitan song.
Many historians put this song to the origins of the dialect of the Neapolitan song, ignoring all the considerations that arise when analyzing together the causes of certain historical processes and music together.
Those were the years when Frederick II forbade singing in the streets at night, just when they were in vogue in Naples The song pé walk de 'carnival and I'm among them, The Recottaro, The' Nfornataro, The Polliero, The Ciardiniero , The Pisciavinnolo, etc..
S. Francis of Assisi traveled the known world of that time with his beautiful Canticle of the Sun, while the courts were to fashion the minstrels and singers from the sirventese come from France. In the fifteenth century reign Alfonso V of Aragon in Naples, said "the Magnanimous", the First King of Naples. At his court the courtly poets already felt the need to innovate the forms of poetry, inspired by the source of the spontaneous and popular sentiment.
strambotto him: "To give ghiute tant'abbracciamiente I know?
Many carizze holds about me to do? "
respect: "Thinking ognie my sin,
Cossi like me to find a cave,
sentuto so comfortable that you 'arrived',
respect: "Nun me chiammate cchiù Donna Isabella,
chiammateme Sabella unfortunate ",
the couplet: "purpo am dead and Mo and is under the preta,
am dead is the son of poet Sir John, "etc.., etc..
The poets and musicians of the Court gave life, with their strambotti, the first Neapolitan folk-song, but the people did not accept the serious, heavy and artificial of these poets and often took refuge in his fresh folk songs:
"Chien de nfamità, faoza nascisti,
chiena de nfamità you given birth ", etc.., etc..
as well as this live singing coming from the countryside:
"The water and the sun m'assuga nfonne me,
all ccose Meie otherwise go ", etc.., etc..
It is the century in which the Italian genius dominates the scene of all courts with its great masters: Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Raphael, Correggio, Giorgione, Titian, Veronese and Tintoretto until it is the discovery of the century ' America with Christopher Columbus, while in Naples, in the streets, singing the villanelle, a folk song coming from the countryside.
The '400 is the century of the first changes in the music industry and indeed, the Aragonese Court of King Alfonso, feels the influence of the Flemish school, more cultured and polyphonic music. With his popular song, Naples port throughout Europe and the Neapolitan villanelle, with this success, the Neapolitan dialect also enters the court to entertain the nobles and plebeians.
The '500 inherits the resounding success of the Neapolitan villanelle, and every day, Piazza Castello became the musical center of this city, as the tavern and the rock of St. Cerriglio Leonardo to Chiaia where poets and musicians gathered to compose new villanelle was his and that the people sang in the streets and popular festivals.
It is the first great poet of the century in Neapolitan language, aka Passaro said Bernaldino Velardiniello (1400-1500), which is attributed to the sweet country girl:
"Voccuccia de no pierzeco apreturo,
Mussillo from na fig lattarola,
If I t'aggio alone dinto de quist'uorto ",
while other poets rhapsodic, often singers as well as skilled musicians, attending parties and dances were popular and sought after and acclaimed everywhere. They are: John of Barrow, Junno cecal (also called the Compa 'Junno), Jacoviello, Cola the poet, Ciardullo (said the poet Vozza), Mucho, Mase, etc.. Among the many, then, Velardiniello, reminds us of the brilliant poet singer said Sbruffapappa, of which there remains the famous villanelle:
"O God! it was ciàola and that bolasse
fenestra in ssa to dirte na word;
but not to me mettisse gajola na. "
Another poet and musician, named Gian Leonardo ARPA in the people applauded him off the castle and there he is:
"We hope havessi de Tantillo
worth my time not too hard, "
These poets and musicians flanked the villanelle of success, such as:
a) You know that the crow has this custom,
always says that when she sings crai:
crai - crai - crai - crai
b) Parzonarella my parzonarella,
c) yearns addeventare prevolillo
ste p is to be coscetelle Caude,
d) Without them your own, madonna Perna,
that does not haggio to make co cchiù 'tico,
e) Li Saracens worship the sun,
Turks and them the moon with the stars
and I love these beautiful Trezze.
f) Oh, the delicious jug of salad,
oh teneriella chiu de la Lactuca,
All successful villanelle is printed on loose sheets with lyrics and music and this confirms the emergence of the Neapolitan villanelle outside the city of Naples.
The Neapolitan song in the seventeenth and eighteenth century
Here comes the '600 overrun with musical culture, bringing with it the decline of the villanelle and the evolution and transformation of the madrigal, and from these, the advent of melodrama. Many talented musicians have also contributed to this evolutionary process, including the musician Carlo Gesualdo, Prince of Venosa (1560-1616), Claudio Monteverdi (1567-1643), Alessandro Stradella (1645-1682), Pier Francesco Cavalli (1602-1676 ), Giacomo Carissimi (1605-1674), Alessandro Scarlatti (1662-1725); them with their musical talent, with their genius gave a decisive and have contributed significantly to the development of opera in the seventeenth century leaving with their art and creativity, an indelible mark.
The Neapolitan operatic school, however, is in Francesco Provenzale (1627-1704), composer of sacred music and religious theater, which gives rise to its founder, in our city very late compared to the other, the Neapolitan operatic production.
In the '600 villanelle end their evolutionary cycle being born first anonymous and popular in the "villagers" villages in the country, then folk-in the city and, finally, villanelle courtly author of the "toscanese" in the courts of the various kingdoms, to decay, definitely By failing spontaneity and simplicity of when they were anonymous and popular.
The '600 gives our city the first three great poets and writers: Philip Sgruttendio Scafati (?), Giulio Cesare Cortese (1575-1621) and Giambattista Basile (1575-1632). In the works of these three great poets of the '600 feels pure and ardent zeal of the people involved, with this tongue-bodied and "tough", the whole culture of the time, describing the life, customs and offering us so, a living, live, fresh witness to it. Despite the revolution of Masaniello in 1647, the plague of 1656 and the earthquake of 1688, the people in these tragedies, he continued to sing to get out of melancholy.
The birth of poetry and literature, dialect poets favored the approach of the people and draw from the life of it, the inspiration for their songs. This interest seconded the development of Neapolitan folk-song which, in fact, re-established contact courtly art, that is intelligent, with the popular song. The works of Cortese, the dialogues and the Eclogues of Basile 'Ntrezzata Sgruttendio prepared the birth of the Dialect and Comedy Opera Buffa (1700).
It is also the century of Michelemma 'and Fenesta lucive ca: everyone tries to give authorship to these two successes, but I agree with the historian Sebastian Di Massa, the cited works are not "folk-songs" but the pure "folk songs".
The social and moral conditions of the people of Naples at the end of '600 are disastrous, after several foreign domination the city had fallen into disarray and in dire poverty. Only after the Treaty of Aachen (1668) will ensure that Italy then, fifty years of progress and peace, but suffering, then, the Austrian rule. The Naples of late '600 and early `700 poured into the streets eternal desire to sing wildly dancing the tarantella, a dance and fashion, then, with great success.
The birth of melodrama makes this 700, the century of the theater and not the track: the theater is built Fiorentini (1707), the Teatro San Carlo (1737), the Mercadante theater, said theater originally Fund (1780), New Theatre (1790) and the theater S. Ferdinand (1790). The spread of melodrama often leads to exaggeration of the stage sets and musical complexity of it, so he feels the need to relieve the solemnity of these devices by introducing, between an act and the other, a musical interlude with slits and scenes of life People lived daily in the streets of Naples. From this insight come Dialect and the Comedy Opera Buffa almost simultaneously. The success of Opera Buffa is attended by the Venetian, De Falco, the Goldsmith and De Dominicis, even the most learned masters like Leo, Vinci, Scarlatti, and Paisiello, Pergolesi and Cimarosa. The return of these artists to the source of the popular spirit, gives new life to Neapolitan folk song, and abandons the courtly opera, born in the House of Bardi Camerata by scholars of artists. These great artists did not disdain to take from the mouth of the people, the most famous folk songs, and then process them and place them in comic operas. Of these include:
- Palummella Zompa and fly
- Lu Cardillo
tarantella and two charming and funny, maybe villanelle of '500 great success:
- The Guarracino (anonymous folk song)
- The Rose (Mercadante).
The Century Opera Buffa closes with the epic story of the Neapolitan Republic (1799), lasted six months and ended tragically on the gallows, while the return of the Bourbons drag this uncertainty of power until the arrival of Garibaldi. The people, the regained freedom, returns to sing and repeat the successes of opera buffa, those successes that prepare the advent of a noble Neapolitan song of the great author Di Giacomo.
The Neapolitan song in the nineteenth century
The 800 comes bloodstained, with the gallows still operating on the streets where he was beheaded and killed all the Neapolitan culture of the aristocracy and middle-class intellectual who wanted to return to Naples and establish freedom and democracy. The troubles are not over for this city always invaded by new owners: the arrival of Joseph Bonaparte (1814) sees in exile in Sicily Ferdinand IV, on the throne of a king, Joachim Murat, who on September 8, to the party Piedigrotta with a big parade and all the royal family: the people takes courage and returns to the streets to sing the song nova. He renewed the rite of the tavern to St. Old Eframo where poets and musicians who found themselves between a glass and the other, gave rise to nova song, made by everyone and anyone, but sung, then, by all the Piedigrotta festival.
The return of the Bourbons in Naples and the shooting of the people of Naples Joachim Murat illusion of a newfound peace and an evening of enchantment Piedigrotta of 1835 broke out for the success of Raffaele Sacco in the famous song: I love you assaje, music by Donizetti. Naples sings by day and night and everywhere, is an obsession and then a great success, sold over 180 thousand copielle with verses and music of this song. The people sang even the illusion of a newfound peace and a bit of freedom, but already the air smelled of the '48 rebellion and was now at hand: the invasion of Garibaldi in the Two Sicilies Naples capital indicates the end of an era and the birth of the Kingdom of Italy. In the middle of the first 800 years, apart from the live permission from T and I love assaje, no poet or musician could give rise to some other successful Neapolitan folk song; only Cottrau Theodore (1827-1879) succeeded in certain way, to express a personal preference in the two songs: Saint Lucia and The Coast (10/28/1850).
This author was the son of William Cottrau (French), arrived in Naples during the reign of Joachim Murat, a lover of the people of Neapolitan songs, much to print a collection titled Recreation music at the typography Girard in 1820.
Was printed in 1824 another collection of songs, published by Cottrau father, curated by Florimo entitled Napolitane.
In 1882 Maestro Vincenzo De Better gathered them in three volumes, including those of Cottrau, which lists all the popular songs and then the anonymous authors of the early nineteenth century, 150 folk songs entitled Echo of Naples reproposed by Luca Torre.
At the same time, Luigi Molinaro of Light sends the print book entitled Folk Songs collected in Naples.
Another important collection of its content is that of Max Vajro titled: Neapolitan Canzonette the early nineteenth century, published by Academic Press in 1954, how high documentary value.
The songs published from 1840 onwards, highlighting the customs and events that have affected the city of Naples: Peppino Turkish poet and musician Luigi Denza, with two reasons for success, remember the invention of the telephone 'OR phone and the inauguration of the Vesuvius funicular with Funiculì Funiculà in 1881.
Our Renaissance is the beginning of a new era for the Neapolitan song, is the beginning of a new cycle, the richest and most complex of all his life. This century embodies the sum of all cycles in which the city has lived and developed his singing and musical talent and whose roots lie in the legend of the beautiful Partenope, singing anonymous and its popular performers in the folk song of its poets and musicians to find, horse of that century, the soul of a great poet, who was able to convey and amalgamate with the outstanding sensitivity, the traditional elements of song and spirit of the people of his time and give the Neapolitan song, which is grafted to the stump of the tunes and opera arias, with the contribution of composers such as F. P. Tosti, M. Costa etc.., The true noble art form. This great poet Salvatore Di Giacomo, who in 1882 began its production with the folk song: Nanni, in 1883 with music by Mario Costa out: Yes' to the female head, in 1884: Nun there Jammo, Nanni. In the same year again broke out in Naples cholera causing twenty thousand deaths: you decide the rehabilitation of the city and in May 1885 Umberto I opened the Serino aqueduct.
Naples is a continuous construction site and the people looking in all the way out of this crisis, and even manages to sing another successful St. Di Giacomo: Oilì, Oila. The contests of songs follow each and every Piedigrotta presents its new song. James is the most popular and most sung poet: Marechiaro comes, 'And spingole French Palomma and night, Queen Amalia' to Speranzella, 'A nuvena, Carcioffolà, Caruli, A Retirata, is alert sentry, Lariulà, A moon nova .
These songs are considered by the Di Giacomo popular character, while the first song nine, that is the true art of song: Matina Mati, napulitana Serenade, Pianefforte 'and night, in March, and Trezze' and Carulina, 'A siren was de May, Ll'ore 'and ll'appuntamento.
James was the first great poet who was able to give the Neapolitan song that dignity of art, where the song is purely lyrical love poem that is: this dominates, sovereign, the noble cycle of nineteenth-century Neapolitan song.
Coetano Di Giacomo is Ferdinando Russo; he makes a Neapolitan song lyric subjective and can bring "spots" at the very creation of art. It's a mighty poet, sensitive and gentle, like the people of his city, which is part of the poet Tammurriata Palazzola, Scetate, which has the Mamma Mia by Sape Quanno sets' or sun.
Arriva overbearing and flippant playwright Roberto Bracco, a contemporary of James, with his songs written almost for fun, singing in the evenings Piedigrotta: How I love you, little Abbastà ca ', Africanella, Nu spierzo Passariello, Tarantella' ntussecosa, Salamelic . In this period of great success of the Neapolitan song even the great poet Gabriele D'Annunzio wanted to give his poetic contribution to our cultural heritage with its lovely sonnet: 'A bet vucchella written for one night on a marble table in the Café Gambrinus and then set to music by F. P. Tosti. The year was 1892.
The Neapolitan song at the beginning of the '900
The first true three great poets of the noble Neapolitan songs were born in Naples, while the added challenge, was a native of Pescara: Salvatore Di Giacomo (12-3-1860/3-4-1934), Ferdinando Russo (23 - 11-1866 / 01.30.1927), Roberto Bracco (19-9-1858/30-4-1943), Gabriele D'Annunzio (Pescara 03.12.1858 / 03.01.1938). This group was then joined by other major interpreters of the soul of the people said songbooks, instinctively because they were poets, writers and not so far from any cultural influence.
In this group, more or less contemporaries of Di Giacomo, these belong songbooks, these poets of the people who have left us some of the most beautiful Neapolitan songs:
- Giovanni Capurro (05.02.1859 / 01.18.1920) - Poet of the immortal song: 'O sole mio, full of humor, keen observer, with its veiled with melancholy verses, Neapolitan type descriptor, also good in spots. More of his most popular hits include 'O pizzaiuolo again, there is no Quanno mammeta, A chanteuse, Lilì Kangi, perished pperò, Totonno' and Quagliarella, Fili d'oro.
- Pasquale Cinquegrana (21-4-1850/27-4-1935) - Poet beloved by the people, simple and honest as he has always lived as a good teacher. His most significant achievements are: 'And sharpshooter, Furturella, Ndringhete nádraí, Muntevergine, Edited' and mom. He also wrote specks of success, such as: 'O rusecatore, Don Xavier mbricato `O,' O boaster, 'O bizzuoco fauzo.
- Giambattista De Curtis (20-7-1860 / 18-1-1926) - Poet, painter and musician, his songs always the voice of his Sorrento. The best-known hits: Back to Surriento, Carmela, Ninuccia, 'A Picciotta, surrentina A, I' m'arricordo 'and you, etc..
- Vincent Russo (16-3-1876 / 11-6-1904) - A sincere and spontaneous poet's song; uneducated but sensitive and lyrical as ever, he died very young and the fate robbed this city one of its most sensitive poets, a true son who could sing in verse, yet all the feeling of its people. His achievements immortal Maria Mari, you vurria I Vasa, A serenade and rrose, Back in May, beautiful Canzona, The urdema my song.
- Aniello Califano (19-1-1870 / 20-2-1919) - verbose Canzoniere and poet, an engineering student, he sang with his love of Sorrento. The successes are: 'A surrentina, Serenade Surriento, Tirabuscio Nini,' O sea 'Margellina, Mandulinata overboard, Tiempe and beautiful,' O surdato nnammurato, etc..
- Gennaro Octavian (25-7-1874 / 25-8-1919) - A vintner's boy, but offered genuine wine scented with poems and songs. Its worldwide success: 'O marenariello, etc..
- Joseph Capaldo (21-4-1874 / 25-8-1919) - Spontaneous and genuine Neapolitan soul singer, died young leaving many successes: Comme mammeta veneers, The Art of "O sun, A cup 'and cafes, And llampadine, etc..
- After 1799 between the populace and the media and educated bourgeoisie had created an unbridgeable chasm, which not even the new political, economic and social unification of Italy was able to heal. This miracle was operated only by the Neapolitan song that brought the dialect of the people in the halls of the upper and educated middle classes easier, so the dialogue interrupted after the mob had viciously decapitated on the gallows Neapolitan culture of the city with the end of the Neapolitan Republic.
Naples had found his inner and outer harmony only through his most beautiful songs and manifested in Piedigrotta festival where the people found itself united in happiness and song. In this climate of renewed confidence Naples was preparing the ground for the rebirth of Neapolitan folk song, but especially for long-awaited and hoped for the arrival of a noble Neapolitan song copyrights.
Created the first music publishers: Bideri, Memories, Santojanni, Pierro, Ceccoli, etc.. and in the shadow of the great poet, Salvatore Di Giacomo come a host of poets and melodisti composing new songs to race to try to express, then, with their songs, the feeling of this city.
Talented musicians gave a hand to the great poets of the birth of the Neapolitan song copyrights: a first group consisted of young and talented musicians such as P. Mario Costa, F. Paolo Tosti, Enrico De Leva, Luigi Denza, Vincenzo Valente, Ernesto De Curtis.
The second group of peers S. James and appealed "songbooks" had, however, as teachers: Eduardo Di Capua, Salvatore Gambardella, Vincenzo Di Chiara, Giambattista De Curtis, Joseph Capolongo, regardless of many other children.
The most important period of Neapolitan song is from 1880 to 1910 and has as its protagonists poets and musicians recalled above, but new authors, in respect of large, made attempts to open new avenues and that authentic Neapolitan melodies.
The Cafe Chantant
Other events gave impetus to this wave of poetic creativity: it opens, 9 November 1890, the Galleria Umberto I and, with it, the Salone Margherita Theatre, located in the "less cruising" in the same gallery.
Thus was born the Café Chantant that, first of its kind in Italy, marked the development and the emergence of Neapolitan and Italian varieties.
Naples, no longer the capital of a kingdom for thirty years, lives at this event as exciting and magical, and for this intense experience is able to restore its unprecedented image nationally and internationally.
The Salone Margherita offers the successful Café Chantant with international artists and dance at the Moulin Rouge in Paris.
Dominate the speck Maldacea with Nicola, the melody with Gennaro Pasquariello, eccentric and quirky songs with the famous "Chantose", the impromptu performances of poetry by Armando Gill, Can-Can and unbridled sensuality, beauty and song of Lina Cavalieri, Otero and the beautiful big Fougère: This is the period of maximum splendor of the enchanting Salone Margherita (1890-1910). With the spread of the cinema, the Café Chantant and for it the Salone Margherita begin, unfortunately, the downturn of the temple and this variety is used for film screenings with vaudeville and melodrama. Today, fell into private hands, is closed for a strange and lengthy restoration. Who knows when the reopening. For whom? For what? The power of local authorities is in hiding and does not feel the duty to enforce the return of the restoration of this historic theater space to the city of Naples.
It faces to the forefront of the Neapolitan song a rich and viable second generation of poets and among these are emerging:
- Rocco Galdieri (Rambaldo) (11-10-1877 / 16-2-1923)-The true poet of the new generation. It brings a new breath in the Neapolitan opera, her veiled with melancholy verses are part of his great personality, is the true poet who writes what he feels, the motions of his spirit, a lyrical subjectivity that is justly compared to that of Di Giacomo. His successes: Sora mine, Vomero, 'Na votes only,' O core 'and Catherine,' A song or pazzariello, and Bonasera ammore, Rundown.
- Ernesto Murolo (04.04.1876 / 10.30.1939) - The soul of a poet is a full palette of colors, with which the track, with a light touch, pictures of Neapolitan life, the poet is a painter of Naples that no longer exists. His accomplishments are many and too many and we remember only the best known ancient Tammurriata, Pusilleco addiruso, Suspiranno, Te, and yes scurdato Napule, Tarantelluccia, Ah, the ffa ammore that makes, little people ', Napule about it goes, 'O Cunto' and Maria Rosa, Piscatore 'and Pusilleco.
- Libero Bovio (08.06.1883 / 26.05.1942) - The Pastures of Neapolitan songs, his poems are already singable music, his love for poetry already Napoli, his characters are a Naples throbbing with humanity, a small middle class that lives his life as usual between squares and alleys of the most popular of the city, is the poet who puts soul singing roots in the people of Naples Parthenope of the beautiful love song and it's clear the appeal of its verse when he says:
"... And the 'know' napulitano
singing nun and brown ".
His achievements are all very well to music by talented and skilled masters: Sing Me pé, Surdate, Autumn, Nun I do 'anything, Tarantella Luciana, Guapparia, Napule sings, princess, Brinneso Ncopp'a ll'onna,' O sea sings, Silence singer, Chiove, Farewell, Totonno goes, And ppentite, napulitanne Tears, 'O'' or country of sun, Tarantella scugnizza, Sapper,' And daughters, abdominal Mamma 'is?, Prison, Passion, Quanta roses , Busciada, Me empty well, urdema The tarantella black Guitar, Love of shepherd, 'O best friend, My dear little daughter, Mimosa Pale, Signorinella.
- Edward Nicoardi (CO Lardini) (02.28.1878 / 26.02.1954) - versatile poet, his poetry that captivates and moves imbued with love, passion, jealousy, misery, of resigned irony. The successes are: Voice 'and night, Sciuldezza beautiful,' Mmiez 'or corn, black Tammurriata,' And zucculille.
- E. A. Mario (05.05.1884 / 06.26.1961) - A versatile poet who managed to win him a place in the world of Neapolitan song and poetry. A new language, fresh, genuine, which shines through in his finest songs. It is the poet of the Piave. His major successes: Funtana allombra, Canzona napulitana, I '' na guitar and 'moon, May is' you, Comme if he sings a Napule, Saint Lucia Luntana, Core furastiero, Duje paravie, Mierolo affurtunato,' O Party, Canzona appassiunata, Ammore 'and femmena, Presentiment, Viper, Thief, The Legend of the Piave, red roses, mandolin Nostalgia, Toys and perfumes, etc..
- Luca Postiglione (18-10-1876 / 27-8-1936) - Poet and painter, the poems reflect the colors of his soul, was instinctive, sophisticated, sincere. Remember: Canzuncella of October, Bella saje Look, Carmela.
- Alfonso Mangione (06.04.1891 / 05.12.1937) - Character including singular and bizarre, poet to distraction, but with an elegance that never fall into vulgarity. You remember him: 'A casciaforte,' A safety, nun's Saturday without sunshine.
- Armando Gill (Michael Testa) (07.28.1877 / 02.01.1945) - One, perhaps the most important songwriters of Naples, loved for his repertoire that he announced himself by saying: "Armando's verses, music Gill, Armando Gill sings ". Popular poet, elegant, cultured man, a strong artistic personality. His accomplishments: As it was raining, 'O four' and May, 'O zampugnaro nnamurato, Nun I know' geluso, so beautiful about Bella, Palomma, Gina my new songs, Stornello aviator, 'So what?.
- Raffaele Chiurazzi (24-2-1876 / 3-12-1957) - Sculptor and poet. His poems exalting love, men, whims, the jealousy of his quarters written in a pure Neapolitan. You remember him: Duorme, Madunnella, Zi my nun, Ammore 'ncarruzzella, Three nnammurate, Canzona piccerella, etc..
The poets of the Second Generation
All the poets of the second generation became available musicians with temperament and spontaneity were able to translate those poems into simple melodies so much to bring a guaranteed success.
They include: Ferdinando Albano, Francesco Buongiovanni, Henry Cannio, Ernesto De Curtis, Edoardo Di Capua, Rodolfo Falvo, Gaetano Lama, Euhemerus Nardella, Attilio Staffelli, Ernesto Tagliferri, Nicola Valente etc..
The timing, unfortunately, change and are affected by the political and social travolgimenti, consequently also the song reflects the change and records, therefore, the end of the final cycle of nineteenth-century Neapolitan song the "belle époque" of a magical moment in history of our Song of style feeling. In this climate comes heavy acceleration and manifests the anger of a popular versifier Antonio Barbieri, when it launches a desperate cry flung him to his time as G. B. Basile in writing:
"Fireball ... where is the name also
vuosto, where the famma,
or villanelle Meie napulitane? "
with his song Naples sempe Napule, set to music in 1914 by Maestro Enrico Cannio:
Nce have risen 'or sound' s' and tamorre,
'A nun s'abballa cchiù Tarantella,
A cheerful and melancholy song collection that reflects the mood of that time before the First World War.
Echoes, after the same war, Edward Nicolardi who writes and sings with melancholy:
"There is' still nu guappo old
s about to see'' c'' or settesorde?
There is still quacche triato
abdominal Pulecenella laughs?
The same Pasquariello sings in vaudeville:
"Come back, my song, comm'a 'na votes,
cchiù simple, gentle and passionate:
Back to `beautiful country abdominal or is born,
about what you already saie sapimmo loves. "
The same great spokesman Gennaro Pasquariello with this song unconsciously closes a period of great splendor, thus affirming the successful conclusion of the Otto cycle-twentieth-century Neapolitan song. It is worth to mention at the end of this period of music publishers born and working in Naples, as well as the main performers of Neapolitan songs. The first melody, entrusted to the beautiful voice of Partenope, as legend has it, she spread the gulf in his enchanted with the power of his love, that love which knows how to overcome all obstacles to survive forever in the memories of her children who have preserved in their hearts the passion for their purposes, and passed from one generation to another. The song was always a serenade that man has been singing for love or get out of melancholy, has defied time and the patience of the people, so much so that Frederick II issued an edict to prohibit the nightly executions, and the proliferation of these . Through various vicissitudes came to copielle printed with the verses and melodic singing to land, then, at the posteggia by little, the first in the trendy restaurants and the second in the alleys of the city where the song was entrusted to barbers, tailors, the ironing and the beautiful girls who dreamed of love. At this period he worked also as the scene of "diversity" with the bold operations of publishers, the famous hearings Piedigrotta, (such as plays for the launch of new songs with the most famous artists of that period) made it a business deal for the diffusion of the song over time in anticipation of an industrial discography. The best-known publishers were among the first: Bideri, Santojanni, Neapolitan Music Society, Memories, Izzo, La Canzonetta, The Poliphon, Gennarelli, Saint Lucia, Ceccoli, etc..
The music publishing started out around 1880 and flourished until the First World War, only to reappear with renewed and new publishing houses, which often were reconstructed by the same authors.
Some remained in place only a year, others were able to overcome the financial problems first and then fall into the maw of the big publishers. Then the rage theater Eden Salon and Margaret and they saw the triumph of these local "canzonettiste" and among them emerged in beauty and intelligence: Lina Cavalieri, Emilia Persico, Carmen Marini, Ersilia Sampieri. Of the male singers of that era include: Arthur Ciotti, Cantalamessa Bernardo, Diego Giannini and tenor De Lucia.
At that time there are two great interpreters of Neapolitan song: Gennaro Pasquariello (08.09.1869 / 20.01.1958) and Elvira Donnarumma (18.04.1882 / 22.05.1933), as well as the great and immortal Enrico Caruso (25-2-1873 / 02.08.1921). These have made eternal Neapolitan songs with their interpretations and their unmistakable voice: Naples always remembers them and is grateful. They looked after other artists to the forefront of the Neapolitan song and consolidated success: Raffaele Viviani and his sister Luisella Godano Joseph, Rudolph Giglio, Salvatore Papaccio, Vittorio Parisi, Armando Gill, Gabre and Mario Pasqualillo. Among women excelled instead Foguez Anna, Tina Castilian, Tecla Scarano, Esther Johnson, Ada Bruges, Lina Resal, Ria Rosa, Gilda Mignonette. Specks which generally very close to the song, had as brilliant and talented performers and Nicola Maldacea Peppino Villani.
The Neapolitan song today
In the twenties and thirties, the song was regularly framed as culture of the fascist regime and the outbreak of the Second World War marked the definitive end of the nineteenth-century Neapolitan song cycle, because the artists in all their aspirations were for ever removed from the sentiment and song of the people. This decline was accentuated by the new means of dissemination of sound and image, which is the Radio, Film sound from the television and then that opened new horizons and amazing light music composers and lyricists such as new poets and versifiers of songs. Lacking inspiration is not the quality of the production itself, although the discography sees a hundredfold the record sales of light music.
After the Second World War nostalgia and love for Naples flashed a star in the firmament of the Neapolitan song: it was the beautiful and poignant Munastero and 'Santa Chiara Michele Galdieri with music by Alberto Barberis. The feeling of the people of Naples appeared sincere and pure as it once was in the song: Simme 'and Napule, paisa! Giuseppe Fiorelli, with music by Nicola Valente and the same applies to Luna Rossa with verses by V. De Crescenzo Vian another song and music, however, was an element of rupture against one "chiagnazzaro" to present and sing new songs of the various hearings Piedigrotta of various music publishers of Naples, it was verses by Scapegoat Pacific Wind and music by Ferdinando Albano played by a young artist in Piedigrotta Bideri 1954: Aurelio Fierro.
Then came the Neapolitan Song Festivals ranging from 1952 to 1969, where the artist took to the success other Neapolitan songs, such as: Guaglione Lazzarella, Vurria, 'A sonnanabula,' A pizza etc.. This success seemed to restore confidence to the Neapolitan song for a recovery and a true revival, but after about 24 years and absolute silence, but not inexplicable, dominating the skyline of birth: Napoli does not sing anymore, he can not sing any more, indeed, says he still remembers the true folk songs born of pure feeling of authentic Neapolitan. Around, though rarely, not at all guests feel the symptoms of an awakening of our happy song: sleeping like Vesuvius, but from time to time sends a signal to make us understand that it is still alive and that will suddenly burst Successfully one that will mark the beginning of this return to its original splendor.