Masaniello and 'one of the most' popular characters napoletana.Masaniello tradition, nickname of Thomas Aniello (or Lamb) (Naples, June 29, 1620 - Naples, July 16, 1647), was a Neapolitan revolutionary.

Born into a humble family (his father, Francesco d'Amalfi, was a fisherman), married in 1641 Masaniello Bernardina Pisa.

In 1646, Rodríguez Ponce de Leon, Duke of Arcos, Spanish viceroy of Naples, densely populated cities of the Habsburg Empire of Philip IV, imposed a tax on fruit in order to improve state finances. Popular discontent led him to promise a reduction in new taxes without the words that were to follow the facts.

Genoino Giulio, letters already active in 1620 as a defender of the people against the nobility and the excessive taxation against the people, after a life of exile following a trial and torture, he returned to Naples. Masaniello was mentor and inspiration of the ideas of equality.
Unfortunately, the relations between him and intercorsero Masaniello, especially after the outbreak of the revolt, are not entirely clear
On July 7, 1647 in Market Square Masaniello organizes a revolt against the tax tables. Soon, every attempt at repression was in vain and the people of Naples can overwhelm the resistance army. It is not an anti-Spanish revolt, as he would like the nineteenth-century Italian history, imbued with nationalist values??, and even a revolt antimonarchical, because the cry of revolt was: Mora the government, long live the King of Spain.

Masaniello organized the storming of the palace, the opening of the prisons, the pyres of the tax records. It was then promulgated a constitution written by Julius Genoino and Masaniello was appointed Captain General of the faithful people. Many palaces were burned. The Viceroy fled the city.

On 16 July the situation resulted confused: Masaniello was arrested, apparently with the support of Genoino, and were circulated rumors about his alleged insanity. Then he was beheaded. The next day a huge crowd followed the coffin of Masaniello in a sumptuous funeral. From that moment the revolt is sharpened: fighting against the nobility and the soldiers followed violent throughout July and August. It was finally declared the Neapolitan Republic, which was recognized by France.

Only 5 April 1648 the Habsburgs were right and the Republic were able to restore the privileges of the aristocracy.

The echo of the events of Naples came to England where Oliver Cromwell He established the republic in 1648.